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More than 300 hydroelectric plants operate in the Dnieper basin, supplying water to the Donets Basin and Kryvyy Rih industrial regions and, for irrigation, to the arid lands of southern Ukraine and Crimea.Several huge dams harness the flow of the Dnieper itself; the Kremenchuk, Kakhovka, and Dnieper are among the major hydroelectric power stations on the river.Suceava, in the south of the territory, was the capital of Moldavia from the late 14th to the mid-16th century.Bukovina acquired its own name and identity only in 1775, when it was ceded to Austria by the Turks, who then controlled Moldavia.Bessarabia remained divided after Ukraine and Moldavia (now Moldova) declared independence in 1991.Bessarabia contains much of archaeological interest, including mounds and barrows of early epochs, remains of a wall built by the Roman emperor Trajan, some traces of Greek and Roman towns, and some forts along the Dniester built by the Genoese in the 14th century.During the beginning of the 19th century, Russia granted Bessarabia autonomy (1818-28) and allowed it a Moldavian governor and archbishop.
After the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was signed (Aug.The Austrians kept a balance between the various ethnic groups in Bukovina; the population was almost solidly Ukrainian in the north and Romanian in the south, while in the towns there were also a number of Germans and Poles, many of them Jews.When Romania achieved independence in 1878, it sought unification with Bukovina.In August 1940 Moldavia, or the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, was created out of the central districts of Bessarabia and a strip of Ukrainian territory on the other side of the Dniester River. During World War II, Romanians occupied Bessarabia and temporarily reorganized it as part of Romania.Kishinyov (now Chisinau) became Moldavia's capital. The northern region of Bessarabia (Khotin) and the coastal plain from the Danube to the Dniester were incorporated into Ukraine, or the Ukrainian S. The Soviet Union seized it in 1944, and the territorial arrangements of 1940 were reestablished.