Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors

For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it.Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it.The invasion of pathogens is primarily prevented by the physical barrier mediated by epithelial cells such as tight junction and mucus ().Among various immunologic factors, secretory immunoglobulin A (Ig A) is recognized as a major important factor to prevent the infection in intestinal lumen and epithelium by inhibiting adherence of pathogens to the epithelium and also neutralizing toxins ().These functions are coincident with the immunological regulation and hence vitamin-deficiency results in high susceptibility to infectious and immune diseases.In this review, we describe recent findings on the specific functions of vitamins in the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis and the regulation of immunosurveillance, especially in the gut.In this review, we focus on the immunologic roles of vitamins in the regulation of homeostasis and surveillance in the gut.

Tel: 81-72-641-9871; Fax: 81-72-641-9872; Vitamins are micronutrients which are essential for the maintenance of biological responses including immune system.After DCs take luminal antigens, they bring them into the T cell region and subsequently germinal centers in B cell region for the presentation of antigen and consequent induction of antigen-specific T and B cell responses.Unique immunologic environments (e.g., IL-4, TGF-β, BAFF, and APRIL) in the PPs allow the preferential differentiation of naive B cells into Ig A).Hence, vitamin deficiency increases a risk of infectious, allergic, and inflammatory diseases.Accumulating evidence has recently revealed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation in the active and quiescent immune responses.

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